|Classification:||North American, Kiowa-Tanoan|
|This language has||42 segments|
|Its Frequency index is||0.273360786 (average percentage of segments; 0.1: many very rare segments; 0.39: average; 0.7: many common segments)|
|The language has these sounds:||p tD k ? ph tDh kh b dD g p' tD' k' ts ts' h s z m nD dlD j i "e a+ O "o u i~ "e~ a+~ O~ "o~ u~ ui a+i oi Oi a+i~ ui~ oi~ Oi~|
|Comment:||Kiowa is spoken by a few hundred speakers in south-central Oklahoma. Long and short variants of vowels occur, with many alternations predictable from syllable structure (Long in open, short in closed syllables). Kiowa has high and low tones and a HL combination that occurs only on heavy syllables (containing a long vowel, a diphthong or a vowel + sonorant sequence). HL is accompanied by significant glottalization. /dl/ does not occur initially; medially it is [l]. Dental and alveolar obstruents do not occur before /i/; velars and /j/ do not occur before /e/. A palatal glide is clearly heard between a velar and front /a/.|
|Source(s):||Sivertsen, E. 1956. Pitch problems in Kiowa. International Journal of American Linguistics 22: 117-130.
Watkins, L.J. 1984. A Grammar of Kiowa. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.
Harrington, J.P. 1928. Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, bulletin 84.